#### College Physics, 1st Edition

*By Michael Tammaro*

**College Physics** transforms students from passive to active learners through a unique presentation of material built from the ground up in a digital environment. Research has proven that students achieve a greater depth of understanding when active learning is used in the classroom and in assignments. College Physics engages students in a cadence of read- interact-reinforce through an interactive learning experience. This interactive learning design in WileyPLUS helps student do more than memorize content, and the rigor of the questions provides relevance to the reading and allows the students to form relationships around the content.

WileyPLUS for **College Physics** includes Adaptive Practice to help students build proficiency on topics and use their study time more effectively.

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Interactive Exercises

This WileyPLUS course has been modularized to engage students in a virtual discourse of learning 24/7. Small chunks of content presented in reading or video format are followed by guided student verification points that offer feedback to ensure comprehension. These embedded verification points consist of three question types: concept checks, practice problems, and interactive examples. All assigned reading questions will report directly into the gradebook.

Animated Illustrations and Visuals

The visual elements engage all types of learners. Each course section within WileyPLUS contains assignable animated illustrations and videos to illustrate concepts and provide demonstrations, allowing students to visualize the science of motion.

Adaptive Practice

Every student has a different starting point, and adaptive practice provides endless opportunities for practice to effectively prepare for class or quizzes and exams. Active retrieval of information with practice questions is proven to improve retention of information better than re-reading or reviewing the material, and students who use adaptive practice to prepare for exams do significantly better than those who do not. Students begin with a quick, section-level diagnostic to determine their initial level of understanding, and they can use the dashboard and quick reports to see what topics they know and don’t know.

**Michael Tammaro** is a teaching professor of physics at the University of Rhode Island. He received his Ph.D. in 1997 from Iowa State University where he studied statistical and computational physics. He has taught the full range of undergraduate physics courses but began teaching general physics in 2002 to gain the experience necessary to write a text for the algebra-based physics market.

Tammaro teaches both small and large lectures and engages students with in-class demonstrations, videos, animations, and recitation-style group work. He is passionate about teaching physics and is always looking for better ways to engage and encourage students. His work with thousands of students over thousands of contact hours has given him detailed knowledge of the specific conceptual and mathematical difficulties faced by students taking algebra-based physics. This experience is reflected in every detail of his innovative course, *College Physics*.

When he is not teaching or creating innovative resources, Tammaro spends much of his time practicing classical guitar and restoring his 40-foot classic yawl.

**0 Mathematical Preliminaries 1**

0.1 Mathematics 2

0.2 Algebra 3

0.3 Using Your Calculator 13

0.4 Geometry and Trigonometry 17

0.5 Graphs 21

**1 Introduction to Physics 27**

1.1 Physics and Physical Laws 28

1.2 Units, Dimensions, and Conversions 30

1.3 Scientific Notation and Significant Figures 35

1.4 Problem Solving in Physics 39

**2 Kinematics in One Dimension 42**

2.1 Position and Displacement: Vectors in One Dimension 43

2.2 Average Speed and Velocity 46

2.3 Instantaneous Velocity 49

2.4 Acceleration 50

2.5 Motion in One Dimension with Constant Acceleration 52

2.6 Graphs and Their Interpretation 58

2.7 Free Fall: The Acceleration of Gravity 60

**3 Kinematics in Two Dimensions 69**

3.1 Position: Vectors in Two Dimensions 70

3.2 Displacement: Vector Addition and Subtraction in Two Dimensions 74

3.4 Equations of Kinematics in Two Dimensions 81

3.5 Projectile Motion 83

3.6 Relative Velocity 91

**4 Force and Newton’s Laws 99**

4.1 F orce and Mass 100

4.2 Newton’s First Law 101

4.3 Newton’s Second Law 104

4.4 Newton’s Third Law 108

4.5 Weight and the Normal Force 111

4.6 Friction 115

4.7 Tension and Pulleys, and Other Contact Forces 120

4.8 Applications I—Equilibrium 122

4.9 Applications II—Nonequilibrium 124

**5 Motion Along a Circular Path 130**

5.1 Uniform Circular Motion and Centripetal Acceleration 131

5.2 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion 134

5.3 Applications 137

**6 Work and Energy 142**

6.1 Work Done by a Constant Force 143

6.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem 148

6.3 Work done by a Variable Force and Hooke’s Law 152

6.4 Conservative Forces, Nonconservative Forces, and Potential Energy 157

6.5 Conservation of Energy 163

6.6 Power 167

**7 Linear Momentum 173**

7.1 Impulse and Momentum 174

7.2 The Impulse-Momentum Theorem 180

7.3 Conservation of Momentum 184

7.4 One-Dimensional Collisions 188

7.5 Two-Dimensional Collisions 192

7.6 Center of Mass 196

**8 Rotational Kinematics and Energy 204**

8.1 Angular Position and Displacement 205

8.2 Angular Velocity and Acceleration 208

8.3 Rotational Kinematics 211

8.4 Connection Between Rotational and Linear Quantities 215

8.5 Rotational Kinetic Energy and the Moment of Inertia 222

8.6 E nergy Conservation for Rotating Objects 227

**9 Rotational Dynamics and Torque 236**

9.1 Torque 237

9.2 Torque and Static Equilibrium 242

9.3 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation 248

9.4 Angular Momentum 252

9.5 Rotational Work and Power 257

9.6 Rotational Quantities as Vectors 259

**10 Gravitation 264**

10.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 265

10.2 Gravitational Potential Energy 270

10.3 Planetary Orbits and Kepler’s Laws 274

**11 Mechanical Oscillations 281**

11.1 Periodic Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion 282

11.2 Velocity and Acceleration in Simple Harmonic Motion 285

11.3 A Mass on a Spring 290

11.4 The Pendulum 294

11.5 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion 297

11.6 Damped Oscillations 299

11.7 Driven Oscillations, and Resonance 304

**12 Properties of Fluids and Solids 310**

12.1 States of Matter and Density 311

12.2 Pressure 313

12.3 Fluids in Static Equilibrium and Pascal’s Principle 316

12.4 Archimedes’ Principle 322

12.5 Fluid Flow and the Continuity Equation 328

12.6 Bernoulli’s Equation 331

12.7 Viscosity 337

12.8 Elastic Deformation of Solids 340

**13 Heat and Temperature 350**

13.1 Thermometers and Temperature Scales 351

13.2 Thermal Expansion 354

13.3 Heat and Temperature Change 362

13.4 Heat and Phase Change 366

13.5 The Convection and Conduction of Heat 372

13.6 Thermal Radiation 379

**14 Ideal Gases and Kinetic Theory 387**

14.1 Atomic Mass and Avogadro’s Number 388

14.2 The Ideal Gas Law 390

14.3 Kinetic Theory 395

**15 Thermodynamics 404**

15.1 The Zeroth and First Laws of Thermodynamics 405

15.2 Thermodynamic Processes 409

15.3 Thermodynamics of Ideal Gases 411

15.4 Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 418

15.5 Refrigerators 425

15.6 Entropy 427

**16 Mechanical Waves 435**

16.1 Waves 436

16.2 Speed of a Wave on a String 440

16.3 Sound Waves 443

16.4 The Doppler Effect 446

16.5 Intensity and Intensity Level 454

16.6 The Mathematical Description of Harmonic Waves 459

**17 Interference and Standing Waves 464**

17.1 Superposition and Interference 465

17.2 Standing Waves on a String 471

17.3 Standing Sound Waves 474

17.4 Beats 479

**18 Electric Forces and Fields 485**

18.1 Electric Charge 486

18.2 Coulomb’s Law 491

18.3 The Electric Field 496

18.4 Electric Field Lines and Conductors 503

18.5 Gauss’ Law 506

**19 Electric Potential 513**

19.1 Electric Potential Energy and Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field 514

19.2 E lectric Potential Energy of Point Charges 521

19.3 E lectric Potential of Point Charges 524

19.4 Capacitors 529

**20 DC Circuits 538**

20.1 E lectric Current and Electromotive Force 539

20.2 Ohm’s Law and Electrical Resistance 543

20.3 E lectrical Power and Energy 548

20.4 Resistors in Series and Parallel 550

20.5 Kirchhoff’s Rules 557

20.6 Capacitors in Series and Parallel 561

20.7 RC Circuits 566

**21 Magnetic Forces and Fields 572**

21.1 Magnetic Fields 573

21.2 The Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field 576

21.3 The Motion of Charged Particles in a Magnetic Field 581

21.4 The Force on a Current in a Magnetic Field 585

21.5 The Production of Magnetic Fields by Electric Current 589

21.6 Ampere’s Law 598

**22 Electromagnetic Induction 603**

22.1 Induced Emf and Motional Emf 604

22.2 Magnetic Flux 610

22.3 F araday’s Law 613

22.4 Lenz’s Law 616

22.5 Generators and Motors 622

22.6 Mutual Inductance and Transformers 625

22.7 Self Inductance and RL Circuits 628

**23 AC Circuits 635**

23.1 Alternating Current and Voltage 636

23.2 AC Circuits with Capacitance 639

23.3 AC Circuits with Inductance 643

23.4 RLC Circuits 645

23.5 Resonance in AC Circuits 650

**24 Electromagnetic Waves 656**

24.1 Light and Electromagnetic Waves 657

24.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 662

24.3 E nergy in Electromagnetic Waves 664

24.4 The Doppler Effect 668

24.5 Polarization 671

**25 Reflection and Mirrors 680**

25.1 Wave Fronts, Rays, and Reflection 681

25.2 Plane Mirrors and Optical Images 683

25.3 Spherical Mirrors 690

25.4 Ray Tracing and Images 693

25.5 The Mirror Equation and Magnification 698

**26 Refraction and Lenses 708**

26.1 Refraction and Snell’s Law 709

26.2 Total Internal Reflection 716

26.3 Dispersion 721

26.4 Thin Lenses and Ray Diagrams 724

26.5 The Thin Lens Equation and Magnification 728

26.6 Lenses in Combination and the Human Eye 734

26.7 Optical Instruments 740

**27 Interference and Diffraction 749**

27.1 The Interference of Light 750

27.2 The Double-Slit Experiment 752

27.3 Single Slit Diffraction 759

27.4 Resolution 764

27.5 Diffraction Gratings 767

27.6 Thin-Film Interference 772\

**28 Relativity 781**

28.1 Postulates of Special Relativity 782

28.2 Time Dilation 784

28.3 Length Contraction 789

28.4 Relativistic Momentum 791

28.5 Relativistic Energy 793

28.6 Relativistic Addition of Velocities 796

**29 Quantum Mechanics 802**

29.1 Blackbody Radiation and Quantization 803

29.2 The Photon and the Photoelectric Effect 804

29.3 Photon Momentum and the Compton Effect 809

29.4 Wave Particle Duality 812

29.5 The Uncertainty Principle 814

**30 Atomic Physics 820**

30.1 The Nuclear Atom 821

30.2 The Spectrum of Hydrogen 823

30.3 The Bohr Model 825

30.4 The Quantum-Mechanical Atom 832

30.5 Pauli’s Exclusion Principle and Multielectron Atoms 837

30.6 Light Emission: Fluorescence, X-Rays, and Lasers 840

**31 Nuclear Physics 850**

31.1 Nuclear Structure 851

31.2 Binding Energy and the Strong Force 852

31.3 Radioactive Decay 856

31.4 Half-life and Radioactive Dating 860

31.5 The Biological Effects of Radiation 866

31.6 Induced Nuclear Reactions and Fission 869

31.7 Nuclear Fusion 873

APPENDIX A: Fundamental Constants*

APPENDIX B: Useful Physical Data*

APPENDIX C: Astronomical Data*

APPENDIX D: Conversion Factors*

APPENDIX E: Conversions (British)*

APPENDIX F: Metric Prefixes*

APPENDIX G: Periodic Table of Elements*

APPENDIX H: Unit Combinations and Derived Units

APPENDIX I: Table of Isotopes

INDEX I-1