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Microbiology: Principles and Explorations, 9th Edition
Jacquelyn G. Black, Laura J. Black
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1 Scope and History of Microbiology 1

WHY STUDY MICROBIOLOGY? 2

SCOPE OF MICROBIOLOGY 4

HISTORICAL ROOTS 9

THE GERM THEORY OF DISEASE 11

EMERGENCE OF SPECIAL FIELDS OF MICROBIOLOGY 15

TOMORROW’S HISTORY 19

2 Fundamentals of Chemistry 27

WHY STUDY CHEMISTRY? 27

CHEMICAL BUILDING BLOCKS AND CHEMICAL BONDS 28

WATER AND SOLUTIONS 32

COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES 36

3 Microscopy and Staining 51

HISTORICAL MICROSCOPY 52

PRINCIPLES OF MICROSCOPY 52

LIGHT MICROSCOPY 58

ELECTRON MICROSCOPY 62

TECHNIQUES OF LIGHT

MICROSCOPY 68

4 Characteristics of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 77

BASIC CELL TYPES 78

PROKARYOTIC CELLS 78

EUKARYOTIC CELLS 97

EVOLUTION BY ENDOSYMBIOSIS 103

THE MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES ACROSS MEMBRANES 105

5 Essential Concepts of Metabolism 115

METABOLISM: AN OVERVIEW 115

ENZYMES 118

ENZYME INHIBITION 120

ANAEROBIC METABOLISM: GLYCOLYSIS AND FERMENTATION 124

AEROBIC METABOLISM: RESPIRATION 128

THE METABOLISM OF FATS AND PROTEINS 134

OTHER METABOLIC PROCESSES 135

THE USES OF ENERGY 138

6 Growth and Culturing of Bacteria 146

GROWTH AND CELL DIVISION 146

FACTORS AFFECTING BACTERIAL GROWTH 156

SPORULATION 165

CULTURING BACTERIA 167

LIVING, BUT NONCULTURABLE, ORGANISMS 174

7 Microbial Genetics 179

AN OVERVIEW OF GENETIC PROCESSES 180

DNA REPLICATION 184

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS 185

THE REGULATION OF METABOLISM 193

MUTATIONS 197

8 Gene Transfer and Genetic Engineering 213

THE TYPES AND SIGNIFICANCE OF GENE TRANSFER 214

TRANSFORMATION 215

TRANSDUCTION 217

CONJUGATION 220

GENE TRANSFER MECHANISMS COMPARED 224

PLASMIDS 224

GENETIC ENGINEERING 228

9 An Introduction to Taxonomy: The Bacteria 242

TAXONOMY: THE SCIENCE OF CLASSIFICATION 243

USING A TAXONOMIC KEY 245

THE FIVE-KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 246

THE THREE-DOMAIN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 250

CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES 254

THE SEARCH FOR EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS 256

BACTERIAL TAXONOMY AND NOMENCLATURE 262

10 Viruses 272

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VIRUSES 273

CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES 277

EMERGING VIRUSES 284

VIRAL REPLICATION 287

CULTURING OF ANIMAL VIRUSES 297

VIRUSES AND TERATOGENESIS 299

VIRUSLIKE AGENTS: SATELLITES, VIROPHAGES, VIROIDS, AND PRIONS 300

VIRUSES AND CANCER 304

HUMAN CANCER VIRUSES 305

11 Eukaryotic Microorganisms and Parasites 311

PRINCIPLES OF PARASITOLOGY 312

PROTISTS 314

FUNGI 321

HELMINTHS 329

ARTHROPODS 337

12 Sterilization and Disinfection 345

PRINCIPLES OF STERILIZATION AND DISINFECTION 346

CHEMICAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS 347

PHYSICAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS 357

13 Antimicrobial Therapy 371

ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY 372

THE HISTORY OF CHEMOTHERAPY 373

GENERAL PROPERTIES OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS 374

DETERMINING MICROBIALSENSITIVITIES TO ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS 382

ATTRIBUTES OF AN IDEAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT 385

ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS 385

ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS 391

ANTIVIRAL AGENTS 394

ANTIPROTOZOAN AGENTS 396

ANTIHELMINTHIC AGENTS 397

SPECIAL PROBLEMS WITH DRUG-RESISTANT

HOSPITAL INFECTIONS 397

14 Host-Microbe Relationships and Disease Processes 405

HOST–MICROBE RELATIONSHIPS 406

KOCH’S POSTULATES 412

KINDS OF DISEASES 413

THE DISEASE PROCESS 415

INFECTIOUS DISEASES—PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE 427

15 Epidemiology and Nosocomial Infections 433

EPIDEMIOLOGY 434

NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS 455

BIOTERRORISM 464

16 Innate Host Defenses 472

INNATE AND ADAPTIVE HOST DEFENSES 473

PHYSICAL BARRIERS 474

CHEMICAL BARRIERS 474

CELLULAR DEFENSES 474

INFLAMMATION 482

FEVER 485

MOLECULAR DEFENSES 486

DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: WHO HAS ONE? 492

17 Basic Principles of Adaptive Immunity and Immunization 498

IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNITY 499

TYPES OF IMMUNITY 499

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 501

HUMORAL IMMUNITY 507

MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES 513

CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY 515

MUCOSAL IMMUNE SYSTEM 519

IMMUNIZATION 521

IMMUNITY TO VARIOUS KINDS OF PATHOGENS 530

18 Immune Disorders 539

OVERVIEW OF IMMUNOLOGICAL DISORDERS 540

IMMEDIATE (TYPE I) HYPERSENSITIVITY 541

CYTOTOXIC (TYPE II) HYPERSENSITIVITY 545

IMMUNE COMPLEX (TYPE III) HYPERSENSITIVITY 549

CELL-MEDIATED (TYPE IV)

HYPERSENSITIVITY 552

AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS 554

TRANSPLANTATION 558

DRUG REACTIONS 561

IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES 562

IMMUNOLOGICAL TESTS 571

19 Diseases of the Skin and Eyes; Wounds and Bites 585

THE SKIN, MUCOUS MEMBRANES, AND EYES 586

DISEASES OF THE SKIN 589

DISEASES OF THE EYES 603

WOUNDS AND BITES 607

20 Urogenital and Sexually Transmitted Diseases 617

COMPONENTS OF THE UROGENITAL SYSTEM 618

UROGENITAL DISEASES

USUALLY NOT TRANSMITTED SEXUALLY 621

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES 627

21 Diseases of the Respiratory System 650

COMPONENTS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 651

DISEASES OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT 654

DISEASES OF THE LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT 660

22 Oral and Gastrointestinal Diseases 690

COMPONENTS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 691

DISEASES OF THE ORAL CAVITY 693

GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES CAUSED BY BACTERIA 698

GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES CAUSED BY OTHER PATHOGENS 709

23 Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, and Systemic Diseases 733

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 734

CARDIOVASCULAR AND LYMPHATIC DISEASES 735

SYSTEMIC DISEASES 740

24 Diseases of the Nervous System 772

COMPONENTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 773

DISEASES OF THE BRAIN AND MENINGES 773

OTHER DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 782

25 Environmental Microbiology 801

FUNDAMENTALS OF ECOLOGY 801

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES 803

AIR 812

SOIL 813

WATER 817

MARINE ENVIRONMENTS 818

SEWAGE TREATMENT 825

BIOREMEDIATION 827

26 Applied Microbiology 834

MICROORGANISMS FOUND IN FOOD 835

PREVENTING DISEASE TRANSMISSION AND FOOD SPOILAGE 842

MICROORGANISMS AS FOOD AND IN FOOD PRODUCTION 848

BEER, WINE, AND SPIRITS 853

INDUSTRIAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY 855

USEFUL ORGANIC PRODUCTS 857

MICROBIOLOGICAL MINING 860

MICROBIOLOGICAL WASTE DISPOSAL 861

Appendices

A METRIC SYSTEM MEASUREMENTS, CONVERSIONS, AND MATH TOOLS A-1

B CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES A-4

C WORD ROOTS COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED IN MICROBIOLOGY A-8

D SAFETY PRECAUTIONS IN THE HANDLING OF CLINICAL SPECIMENS A-11

E METABOLIC PATHWAYS A-13

GLOSSARY 866

CLINICAL CASE STUDY ANSWERS 894

CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS ANSWERS 896

SELF-QUIZ ANSWERS 904

INDEX 916

 

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Jacquelyn G. Black, Laura J. Black