**1 An Introduction to Chemistry 1**

1.1 The Nature of Chemistry 2

1.2 A Scientific Approach to Problem Solving 3

1.3 The Particulate Nature of Matter 5

1.4 Classifying Matter 7

Review 9

Review Questions 10

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises 11

Answers to Practice Exercises 12

**2 Standards for Measurement 13**

2.1 Scientific Notation 14

2.2 Measurement and Uncertainty 15

2.3 Significant Figures 16

2.4 Significant Figures in Calculations 18

2.5 The Metric System 21

2.6 Dimensional Analysis: A Problem-Solving Method 27

2.7 Measurement of Temperature 30

2.8 Density 34

Review 37

Review Questions 38

Paired Exercises 39

Additional Exercises 41

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice

Exercises 43

**3 Elements and Compounds 44**

3.1 Elements 45

3.2 Introduction to the Periodic Table 49

3.3 Compounds and Formulas 52

Review 57

Review Questions 58

Paired Exercises 59

Additional Exercises 60

Challenge Exercises, Answers to

Practice Exercises 61

**4 Properties of Matter 62**

4.1 Properties of Substances 63

4.2 Physical and Chemical Changes 65

4.3 Learning to Solve Problems 68

4.4 Energy 68

4.5 Heat: Quantitative Measurement 70

4.6 Energy in the Real World 72

Review 74

Review Questions 75

Paired Exercises 76

Additional Exercises 77

Challenge Exercises, Answers to

Practice Exercises 78

Chapters 1–4 review 79

**5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure 82**

5.1 Dalton’s Model of the Atom 83

5.2 Electric Charge 84

5.3 Subatomic Parts of the Atom 85

5.4 The Nuclear Atom 87

5.5 Isotopes of the Elements 89

5.6 Atomic Mass 92

Review 93

Review Questions 94

Paired Exercises 95

Additional Exercises 96

Challenge Exercise, Answers to

Practice Exercises 97

**6 Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds 98**

6.1 Common and Systematic Names 99

6.2 Elements and Ions 100

6.3 Writing Formulas from Names of Ionic Compounds 103

6.4 Naming Binary Compounds 105

6.5 Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 109

6.6 Acids 111

Review 114

Review Questions 115

Paired Exercises 116

Additional Exercises 117

Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 118

Chapters 5–6 review 119

**7 Quantitative Composition of Compounds 121**

7.1 The Mole 122

7.2 Molar Mass of Compounds 126

7.3 Percent Composition of Compounds 129

7.4 Calculating Empirical Formulas 133

7.5 Calculating the Molecular Formula from the Empirical Formula 135

Review 138

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 139

Additional Exercises 141

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 142

**8 Chemical Equations 143**

8.1 The Chemical Equation 144

8.2 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 145

8.3 Types of Chemical Equations 150

8.4 Heat in Chemical Reactions 156

8.5 Global Warming: The Greenhouse Effect 159

Review 161

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 163

Additional Exercises 165

Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 166

**9 Calculations from Chemical Equations 167**

9.1 Introduction to Stoichiometry 168

9.2 Mole–Mole Calculations 170

9.3 Mole–Mass Calculations 173

9.4 Mass–Mass Calculations 174

9.5 Limiting Reactant and Yield Calculations 176

Review 182

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 183

Additional Exercises 185

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 187

Chapters 7–9 review 188

**10 Modern Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table 191**

10.1 Electromagnetic Radiation 192

10.2 The Bohr Atom 193

10.3 Energy Levels of Electrons 195

10.4 Atomic Structures of the First 18 Elements 198

10.5 Electron Structures and the Periodic Table 201

Review 206

Review Questions 207

Paired Exercises 208

Additional Exercises 210

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 211

**11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms
212**

11.1 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 213

11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 216

11.3 The Ionic Bond: Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 217

11.4 Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds 222

11.5 The Covalent Bond: Sharing Electrons 224

11.6 Electronegativity 226

11.7 Lewis Structures of Compounds 229

11.8 Complex Lewis Structures 232

11.9 Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 234

11.10 Molecular Shape 235

Review 239

Review Questions 240

Paired Exercises 241

Additional Exercises 243

Challenge Exercises 244

Answers to Practice Exercises 245

Chapters 10–11 review 246

**12 The Gaseous State of Matter 248**

12.1 Properties of Gases 249

12.2 Boyle’s Law 252

12.3 Charles’ Law 256

12.4 Avogadro’s Law 259

12.5 Combined Gas Laws 260

12.6 Ideal Gas Law 264

12.7 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures 267

12.8 Density of Gases 270

12.9 Gas Stoichiometry 270

Review 274

Review Questions 276

Paired Exercises 277

Additional Exercises 279

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 281

**13 Liquids 282**

13.1 States of Matter: A Review 283

13.2 Properties of Liquids 283

13.3 Boiling Point and Melting Point 286

13.4 Changes of State 288

13.5 Intermolecular Forces 290

13.6 Hydrates 295

13.7 Water, a Unique Liquid 297

Review 300

Review Questions 301

Paired Exercises 302

Additional Exercises 303

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 304

**14 Solutions 305**

14.1 General Properties of Solutions 306

14.2 Solubility 307

14.3 Rate of Dissolving Solids 311

14.4 Concentration of Solutions 312

14.5 Colligative Properties of Solutions 320

14.6 Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure 325

Review 327

Review Questions 328

Paired Exercises 329

Additional Exercises 332

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 333

Chapters 12–14 review 334

**15 Acids, Bases, and Salts 337**

15.1 Acids and Bases 338

15.2 Reactions of Acids and Bases 342

15.3 Salts 343

15.4 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes 344

15.5 Introduction to pH 349

15.6 Neutralization 352

15.7 Writing Net Ionic Equations 354

15.8 Acid Rain 356

Review 357

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 359

Additional Exercises 361

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 362

**16 Chemical Equilibrium 363**

16.1 Rates of Reaction 364

16.2 Chemical Equilibrium 365

16.3 Le Châtelier’s Principle 366

16.4 Equilibrium Constants 373

16.5 Ion Product Constant for Water 374

16.6 Ionization Constants 376

16.7 Solubility Product Constant 378

16.8 Buffer Solutions: The Control of pH 381

Review 383

Review Questions 384

Paired Exercises 385

Additional Exercises 387

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 389

**17 Oxidation–Reduction 390**

17.1 Oxidation Number 391

17.2 Balancing Oxidation–Reduction Equations 395

17.3 Balancing Ionic Redox Equations 398

17.4 Activity Series of Metals 401

17.5 Electrolytic and Voltaic Cells 403

Review 407

Review Questions 409

Paired Exercises 410

Additional Exercises 412

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 413

Chapters 15–17 review 414

**18 Nuclear Chemistry 417**

18.1 Discovery of Radioactivity 418

18.2 Alpha Particles, Beta Particles, and Gamma Rays 421

18.3 Radioactive Disintegration Series 424

18.4 Measurement of Radioactivity 426

18.5 Nuclear energy 427

18.6 Mass–Energy Relationship in Nuclear Reactions 433

18.7 Biological Effects of Radiation 434

Review 436

Review Questions 437

Paired Exercises 438

Additional Exercises 439

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 440

**19 Introduction to Organic Chemistry 441**

19.1 The Beginnings of Organic Chemistry 442

19.2 Why Carbon? 442

19.3 Alkanes 445

19.4 Alkenes and Alkynes 452

19.5 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 456

19.6 Hydrocarbon Derivatives 459

19.7 Alcohols 461

19.8 Ethers 465

19.9 Aldehydes and Ketones 467

19.10 Carboxylic Acids 469

19.11 Esters 471

19.12 Polymers—Macromolecules 473

Review 474

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 477

Additional Exercises 481

Answers to Practice Exercises 482

**20 Introduction to Biochemistry 483**

20.1 Chemistry in Living Organisms 484

20.2 Carbohydrates 484

20.3 Lipids 488

20.4 Amino Acids and Proteins 492

20.5 Enzymes 497

20.6 Nucleic Acids, DNA, and Genetics 499

Review 504

Review Questions and Exercises 505

Answers to Practice Exercises 507

Chapters 18–20 review 508

Appendices

I. Mathematical and Review A-1

II. Using a Scientific Calculator A-10

III. Units of Measurement A-14

IV. Vapor Pressure of Water at Various

Temperatures A-15

V. Solubility Table A-16

VI. Answers to Selected Exercises A-17

VII. Answers to Putting It Together Review

Exercises A-33

Glossary G-1

index I-1