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Cognition, 9th Edition LS
Margaret W. Matlin, Thomas A. Farmer
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CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Cognitive Psychology 1

Chapter Introduction 2

What is Cognitive Psychology? 2

A Historical Perspective on Cognitive Psychology 7

The Origins of Cognitive Psychology 7

Behaviorism 9

The Cognitive Revolution 10

Cognitive Psychology in Present Times 12

The Relationship Between Mind, Brain, and Behavior 14

Cognitive Science 14

Artificial Intelligence 15

The Computer Metaphor of the Mind and Information Processing 16

The Connectionist Approach 18

Cognitive Neuroscience 19

Brain Lesions 20

Positron Emission Tomography (PET Scan) 21

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging 21

Event-Related Potential Technique 22

Overview of Your Textbook 24

Preview of the Chapters 25

Themes in the Book 26

Theme 1: Cognitive processes are active, rather than passive. 26

Theme 2: Cognitive processes are remarkably efficient and accurate. 27

Theme 3: Cognitive processes handle positive information better than negative information 27

Theme 4: Cognitive processes are interrelated with one another; they do not operate in isolation 28

Theme 5: Many cognitive processes rely on both bottom-up and top-down processing. 28

How to Use Your Book Effectively 28

Chapter Outline 29

Chapter Introductions 29

Demonstrations 29

Individual Differences Focus 29

Applications 30

End-of-Section Practice Quiz Questions 31

Section Summaries 31

End of Chapter Review Questions 31

Keywords 31

Keywords List and Glossary 32

Recommended Readings 32

Chapter Review Questions 35

Keywords 36

Recommended Readings 37

CHAPTER 2 Visual and Auditory Recognition 39

Chapter Introduction 40

Overview of Visual Object Recognition 40

The Visual System 41

Organization in Visual Perception 44

Theories of Visual Object Recognition 46

Feature-Analysis Theory 47

The Recognition-by-Components Theory 49

Top-Down Processing and Visual Object Recognition 52

Bottom-Up Versus Top-Down Processing 52

Top-Down Processing and Reading 53

“Smart Mistakes” in Object Recognition 56

Change Blindness 56

Inattentional Blindness 57

Specialized Visual Recognition Processes 59

Recognizing Faces Versus Recognizing Other Objects 60

Neuroscience Research on Face Recognition 60

Applied Research on Face Recognition 62

Speech Perception 66

Characteristics of Speech Perception 66

Word Boundaries 66

Variability in Phoneme Pronunciation 67

Context and Speech Perception 68

Visual Cues as an Aid to Speech Perception 68

Theories of Speech Perception 70

The Special Mechanism Approach 70

The General Mechanism Approaches 71

Chapter Review Questions 74

Keywords 75

Recommended Readings 76

CHAPTER 3 Attention and Consciousness 77

Chapter Introduction 78

Overview of Attention 79

Divided Attention 80

Selective Attention 81

Dichotic Listening 81

The Stroop Effect 82

Visual Search 84

Eye Movements in Reading 88

Overview of Eye Movements in Reading 88

Selective Attention in Reading 90

Neuroscience of Attention 92

The Orienting Attention Network 92

The Executive Attention Network 94

Theories of Attention 95

Early Theories of Attention 95

Feature-Integration Theory 96

Consciousness 99

Thought Suppression 101

Blindsight 103

Chapter Review Questions 106

Keywords 107

Recommended Readings 108

CHAPTER 4 Working Memory 109

Chapter Introduction 110

Classical Research on Short-Term Memory 110

The “Magical Number Seven” 111

Early Research on Short-Term Capacity Limits 112

The Brown/Peterson and Peterson Technique 113

Serial Position Effect 113

Semantic Similarity of the Items in Short-Term Memory 115

Atkinson and Shiffrin’s Model of Information Processing 117

The Turn to Working Memory 120

Evidence for Components with Independent Capacities 123

Phonological Loop 124

Neuroscience Research on the Phonological Loop 126

Visuospatial Sketchpad 127

Research on the Visuospatial Sketchpad 128

Neuroscience Research on the Visuospatial Sketchpad 128

Central Executive 129

Characteristics of the Central Executive 129

The Central Executive and Daydreaming 130

Neuroscience Research on the Central Executive 131

Recent views of the central executive 131

Episodic Buffer 132

Working Memory Effects on Academic Performance and

Relationships to Mental Health 134

Working Memory and Academic Performance 135

Working Memory Abilities in Clinical Populations 135

Chapter Review Questions 140

Keywords 141

Recommended Readings 141

CHAPTER 5 Long-Term Memory 143

Chapter Introduction 144

Brief Overview of Long-Term Memory 144

Encoding In Long-Term Memory 147

Levels of Processing 147

Levels of Processing and Memory for General Material 149

Levels of Processing and the Self-Reference Effect 150

Encoding-Specificity Principle 152

Research on Encoding Specificity 152

Levels of Processing and Encoding Specificity 154

Retrieval in Long-Term Memory 156

Explicit Versus Implicit Memory Tasks 157

Definitions and Examples 158

Individuals with Amnesia 159

Expertise 161

The Context-Specific Nature of Expertise 161

How Do Experts and Novices Differ? 161

Own-Ethnicity Bias 162

Autobiographical Memory 165

Schemas and Autobiographical Memory 166

Source Monitoring and Reality Monitoring 167

Flashbulb Memories 168

Eyewitness Testimony 171

Example of Inappropriate Eyewitness Testimony 171

The Post-Event Misinformation Effect 172

Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony 174

The Relationship Between Memory Confidence and

Memory Accuracy 175

Special Topics In Long-Term Memory 176

Emotions and Memory 177

Anxiety Disorders and Explicit and Implicit Memory Tasks 180

The Recovered-Memory/False-Memory Controversy 181

The Two Contrasting Positions in the Controversy 182

The Potential for Memory Errors 183

Arguments for False Memory 183

Arguments for Recovered Memory 184

Both Perspectives Are at Least Partially Correct 185

Chapter Review Questions 188

Recommended Readings 190

Keywords 190

CHAPTER 6 Memory Strategies and Metacognition 191

Chapter Introduction 192

Memory Strategies I: Memory Strategies Informed By Memory Concepts 193

Divided Attention 193

Working Memory 193

Levels of Processing 194

Elaboration 194

Distinctiveness 195

Encoding Specificity 196

Memory Strategies Ii: Practice And Mnemonics 198

Memory Strategies Emphasizing Practice 198

Distributed Practice Effect 198

Testing Effect 199

Mnemonics Using Imagery 201

Mnemonics Using Organization 203

Chunking 203

Hierarchy Technique 203

First-Letter Technique 205

Narrative Technique 205

Prospective Memory 205

Comparing Prospective and Retrospective Memory 206

Absentmindedness and Prospective Memory Failures 206

Suggestions for Improving Prospective Memory 207

Metamemory 210

Accuracy of Metamemory 211

Metamemory: Estimating the Accuracy for Total Score Versus the Accuracy for Individual Items 211

Metamemory: Estimating the Score Immediately Versus After a Delay 212

Metamemory About Factors Affecting Memory Accuracy 213

Metamemory and the Regulation of Study

Strategies 214

Allocating Time When the Task Is Easy 215

Allocating Time When the Task Is Difficult 215

Conclusions About the Regulation of Study Strategies 216

Tip-of-the-Tongue and Feeling-of-Knowing Effects 216

Tip-of-the-Tongue Effect 216

Feeling of Knowing 218

Metacomprehension 219

Metacomprehension Accuracy 219

Improving Metacomprehension 221

Chapter Review Questions 225

Keywords 226

Recommended Readings 227

CHAPTER 7 Mental Imagery and Cognitive Maps 229

Chapter Introduction 230

Classical Research on Visual Imagery 230

Overview of Mental Imagery 230

Mental Rotation 232

Subsequent Research on Mental Rotation 234

Cognitive Neuroscience Research on Mental Rotation Tasks 236

The Imagery Debate 236

Visual Imagery and Ambiguous Figures 238

Summary 241

Factors That Influence Visual Imagery 242

Distance and Shape Effects on Visual Imagery 242

Visual Imagery and Interference 245

Visual Imagery and Other Vision-Like Processes 245

Gender Comparisons in Spatial Ability 246

Auditory Imagery 249

Auditory Imagery and Pitch 250

Auditory Imagery and Timbre 251

Cognitive Maps 252

Distance and Shape Effects on Cognitive Maps 255

Distance Estimates and Number of Intervening Cities 255

Distance Estimates and Category Membership 256

Distance Estimates and Landmarks 257

Cognitive Maps and Shape 258

Relative Position Effects on Cognitive Maps 258

The Rotation Heuristic 259

The Alignment Heuristic 260

Creating a Cognitive Map 261

The Spatial Framework Model 262

The Situated Cognition Approach 264

Chapter Review Questions 267

Keywords 268

Recommended Readings 269

CHAPTER 8 General Knowledge 271

Chapter Introduction 272

Background and Approaches to Semantic Memory 272

The Prototype Approach 275

Characteristics of Prototypes 277

Levels of Categorization 279

Conclusions About the Prototype Approach 280

The Exemplar Approach 281

Comparing the Prototype and Exemplar Approaches 283

Network Models of Semantic Memory 285

Anderson’s ACT-R Approach 285

The Parallel Distributed Processing Approach 288

Schemas and Scripts 295

Background on Schemas and Scripts 296

Schemas and Scripts 297

Identifying the Script in Advance 298

Schemas and Memory Selection 298

Schemas and Boundary Extension 303

Schemas and Memory Abstraction 304

The Constructive Approach 305

The Pragmatic Approach 305

The Current Status of Schemas and Memory Abstraction 306

Schemas and Memory Integration 307

The Classic Research on Memory Integration 307

Research About Memory Integration Based on Gender Stereotypes 308

Summary 312

Chapter Review Questions 315

Keywords 316

Recommended Readings 317

CHAPTER 9 Language I: Introduction to Language and Language Comprehension 319

Chapter Introduction 320

Overview of Psycholinguistics 320

Relevant Terminology and Background On Language 321

Basic Facts about Human Language 322

A Brief History of Psycholinguistics 324

Chomsky’s Approach 324

Reactions to Chomsky’s Theory 325

Psycholinguistic Theories that Emphasize Meaning 326

On-Line Sentence Comprehension 328

Negation and the Passive Voice 328

Syntactic Complexity 329

Lexical and Syntactic Ambiguity 331

Lexical Ambiguity 331

Syntactic Ambiguity 332

Brain and Language 337

General Considerations 337

Aphasia 338

Revisiting Broca’s Area 340

Hemispheric Specialization 342

The Mirror System 344

Reading 346

Comparing Written and Spoken Language 347

Reading Words: Theoretical Approaches 348

The Direct-Access Route 349

The Indirect-Access Route 349

Implications for Teaching Reading to Children 350

Discourse comprehension 353

Forming an Integrated Representation of the Text 354

Drawing Inferences During Reading 355

The Constructionist View of Inferences 356

Factors That Encourage Inferences 357

Higher-Level Inferences 358

Teaching Metacomprehension Skills 358

Test Anxiety and Reading Comprehension 359

Chapter Review Questions 363

Keywords 364

Recommended Readings 365

CHAPTER 10 Language II: Language Production and Bilingualism 367

Chapter Introduction 368

Speaking I: Overview of Production Processes 368

Producing a Word 369

Speech Errors 370

Types of Slip-of-the-Tongue Errors 370

Explanations for Speech Errors 371

Producing a Sentence 372

Producing Discourse 373

Speaking II: Language Production and Naturalistic Communication 374

Using Gestures: Embodied Cognition 374

The Social Context of Language Production 378

Common Ground 378

Directives 380

Framing 382

Language Production and Writing 383

The Role of Working Memory In Writing 384

Planning a Formal Writing Assignment 385

Sentence Generation During Writing 386

The Revision Phase of Writing 387

Bilingualism 388

Background on Bilingualism 388

The Social Context of Bilingualism 390

Advantages (and Minor Disadvantages) of Bilingualism 391

Proficiency and Second Language Acquisition 394

Second-Language Proficiency 394

Vocabulary 394

Phonology 394

Grammar 396

Simultaneous Interpreters and Working Memory 397

Chapter Review Questions 402

Keywords 403

Recommended Readings 403

CHAPTER 11 Problem Solving and Creativity 405

Chapter Introduction 406

Understanding the Problem 406

Paying Attention to Important Information 408

Methods of Representing the Problem 408

Symbols 409

Matrices 410

Diagrams 411

Visual Images 413

Situated and Embodied Cognition Perspectives on Problem Solving 413

Situated Cognition 414

Embodied Cognition 414

Problem-Solving Strategies 416

The Analogy Approach 417

The Structure of the Analogy Approach 418

Factors that Encourage Appropriate Use of Analogies 419

The Means-Ends Heuristic 419

Research on the Means-Ends Heuristic 419

Computer Simulation 420

The Hill-Climbing Heuristic 421

Factors That Influence Problem Solving 422

Expertise 423

Knowledge Base 423

Memory 423

Problem-Solving Strategies 424

Speed and Accuracy 425

Metacognitive Skills 425

Mental Set 425

Functional Fixedness 426

Gender Stereotypes and Math Problem Solving 427

The Nature of Stereotype Threat 428

Research with Asian American Females 428

Research with European American Females 429

Potential Explanations 429

Insight Versus Noninsight Problems 431

The Nature of Insight 431

Metacognition During Problem Solving 432

Advice About Problem Solving 432

Creativity 434

Guilford’s Classic Approach to Creativity 436

The Nature of Creativity 436

Extrinsic Motivation and Creativity 437

Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity 437

Chapter Review Questions 442

Recommended Readings 443

Keywords 443

CHAPTER 12 Deductive Reasoning and Decision Making 445

Chapter Introduction 446

Deductive Reasoning 446

An Overview of Conditional Reasoning 448

Difficulties with Linguistically Negative Information 451

Difficulties with Abstract Reasoning Problems 451

The Belief-Bias Effect 451

The Confirmation Bias 452

The Standard Wason Selection Task 453

Concrete Versions of the Wason Selection Task 454

Applications in Medicine 454

Further Perspectives 455

Decision Making I: Overview of Heuristics 456

The Representativeness Heuristic 457

Sample Size and Representativeness 459

Base Rate and Representativeness 460

The Conjunction Fallacy and Representativeness 461

The Availability Heuristic 463

Recency and Availability 465

Familiarity and Availability 465

The Recognition Heuristic 466

Illusory Correlation and Availability 466

The Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic 468

Research on the Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic 471

Estimating Confidence Intervals 471

Current Status of Heuristics and Decision Making 473

Decision Making II: Applications of Decision-Making Research 474

The Framing Effect 475

Background Information and the Framing Effect 476

The Wording of a Question and the Framing Effect 477

Overconfidence About Decisions 478

General Studies on Overconfidence 479

Overconfidence in Political Decision Making 480

Overconfidence About Completing Projects on Time 480

Reasons for Overconfidence 481

The Hindsight Bias 482

Research About the Hindsight Bias 482

Explanations for the Hindsight Bias 483

Decision-Making Style and Psychological Well-Being 484

Hypothetical Decision Making: How Should Wealth Be

Distributed? 486

Chapter Review Questions 489

Keywords 490

Recommended Readings 491

CHAPTER 13 Cognitive Development Throughout the Lifespan 493

Chapter Introduction 494

The Lifespan Development of Memory 495

Memory in Infants 495

Recognizing Mother 496

Conjugate Reinforcement 496

Memory in Children 499

Children’s Working Memory 500

Children’s Long-Term Memory 500

Children’s Memory Strategies 503

Children’s Eyewitness Testimony 505

Children’s Intellectual Abilities and Eyewitness Testimony 508

Memory in Elderly People 509

Working Memory in Elderly People 509

Long-Term Memory in Elderly People 510

Explanations for Age Differences in Memory 512

The Lifespan Development of Metamemory 515

Metamemory in Children 515

Children’s Understanding of How Memory Works 515

Children’s Awareness That Effort Is Necessary 516

Children’s Judgments About Their Memory Performance 517

Children’s Metamemory: The Relationship Between Metamemory and Memory Performance 517

Metamemory in Elderly People 519

Beliefs About Memory 519

Memory Monitoring 519

Awareness of Memory Problems 520

The Development of Language 521

Language in Infants 522

Speech Perception During Infancy 522

Language Comprehension During Infancy 523

Language Production During Infancy 525

Adults’ Language to Infants 525

Can Infants Learn Language from a DVD? 526

Language in Children 527

Words 528

Morphology 529

Syntax 529

Pragmatics 530

Chapter Review Questions 535

Keywords 536

Recommended Readings 536

Glossary 537

Reference 555

Index 000

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Margaret W. Matlin, Thomas A. Farmer