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Applied Calculus, 5th Edition
Deborah Hughes-Hallett, Patti Frazer Lock, Andrew M. Gleason, Daniel E. Flath, Sheldon P. Gordon, David O. Lomen, David Lovelock, William G. McCallum, Brad G. Osgood, Andrew Pasquale, Jeff Tecosky-Feldman, Joseph Thrash, Karen R Rhea, Thomas W. Tucker
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1 FUNCTIONS AND CHANGE 1

1.1 WHAT IS A FUNCTION? 2

1.2 LINEAR FUNCTIONS 8

1.3 AVERAGE RATE OF CHANGE AND RELATIVE CHANGE 16

1.4 APPLICATIONS OF FUNCTIONS TO ECONOMICS 28

1.5 EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS 39

1.6 THE NATURAL LOGARITHM 46

1.7 EXPONENTIAL GROWTH AND DECAY 51

1.8 NEW FUNCTIONS FROM OLD 60

1.9 PROPORTIONALITY AND POWER FUNCTIONS 65

1.10 PERIODIC FUNCTIONS 71

REVIEW PROBLEMS 78

STRENGTHEN YOUR UNDERSTANDING 84

PROJECTS: COMPOUND INTEREST, POPULATION CENTER OF THE US, MEDICAL CASE STUDY: ANAPHYLAXIS 86

2 RATE OF CHANGE: THE DERIVATIVE 89

2.1 INSTANTANEOUS RATE OF CHANGE 90

2.2 THE DERIVATIVE FUNCTION 97

2.3 INTERPRETATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 103

2.4 THE SECOND DERIVATIVE 113

2.5 MARGINAL COST AND REVENUE 119

REVIEW PROBLEMS 125

STRENGTHEN YOUR UNDERSTANDING 130

PROJECTS: ESTIMATING TEMPERATURE OF A YAM; TEMPERATURE AND ILLUMINATION;CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE 131

FOCUS ON THEORY 133

LIMITS, CONTINUITY, AND THE DEFINITION OF THE DERIVATIVE 133

3 SHORTCUTS TO DIFFERENTIATION 137

3.1 DERIVATIVE FORMULAS FOR POWERS AND POLYNOMIALS 138

3.2 EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS 145

3.3 THE CHAIN RULE 150

3.4 THE PRODUCT AND QUOTIENT RULES 156

3.5 DERIVATIVES OF PERIODIC FUNCTIONS 161

REVIEW PROBLEMS 165

STRENGTHEN YOUR UNDERSTANDING 168

PROJECTS: CORONER’S RULE OF THUMB; AIR PRESSURE AND ALTITUDE; RELATIVE GROWTH RATES: POPULATION, GDP, AND GDP PER CAPITA; KEELING CURVE: ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE 169

FOCUS ON THEORY 171

ESTABLISHING THE DERIVATIVE FORMULAS 171

FOCUS ON PRACTICE 174

FOCUS ON PRACTICE 174

4 USING THE DERIVATIVE 175

4.1 LOCAL MAXIMA AND MINIMA 176

4.2 INFLECTION POINTS 183

4.3 GLOBAL MAXIMA AND MINIMA 189

4.4 PROFIT, COST, AND REVENUE 194

4.5 AVERAGE COST 202

4.6 ELASTICITY OF DEMAND 208

4.7 LOGISTIC GROWTH 213

4.8 THE SURGE FUNCTION AND DRUG CONCENTRATION 221

REVIEW PROBLEMS 228

STRENGTHEN YOUR UNDERSTANDING 235

PROJECTS: AVERAGE AND MARGINAL COSTS, FIREBREAKS, PRODUCTION AND THE PRICE OF RAW MATERIALS, MEDICAL CASE STUDY: IMPACT OF ASTHMA ON BREATHING 237

5 ACCUMULATED CHANGE: THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL 241

5.1 DISTANCE AND ACCUMULATED CHANGE 242

5.2 THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL 250

5.3 THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL AS AREA 255

5.4 INTERPRETATIONS OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL 260

5.5 TOTAL CHANGE AND THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS 268

5.6 AVERAGE VALUE 272

REVIEW PROBLEMS 276

STRENGTHEN YOUR UNDERSTANDING 281

PROJECTS: CARBON DIOXIDE IN POND WATER, FLOODING IN THE GRAND CANYON 283

FOCUS ON THEORY 286

FOCUS ON THEORY 287

THEOREMS ABOUT DEFINITE INTEGRALS 287

6 ANTIDERIVATIVES AND APPLICATIONS 291

6.1 ANALYZING ANTIDERIVATIVES GRAPHICALLY AND NUMERICALLY 292

6.2 ANTIDERIVATIVES AND THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL 297

6.3 USING THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM TO FIND DEFINITE INTEGRALS 302

6.4 APPLICATION: CONSUMER AND PRODUCER SURPLUS 306

6.5 APPLICATION: PRESENT AND FUTURE VALUE 312

6.6 INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION 316

6.7 INTEGRATION BY PARTS 321

REVIEW PROBLEMS 324

STRENGTHEN YOUR UNDERSTANDING 326

PROJECTS: QUABBIN RESERVOIR, DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES, YIELD FROM AN APPLE ORCHARD 328

FOCUS ON PRACTICE 330

7 PROBABILITY 331

7.1 DENSITY FUNCTIONS 332

7.2 CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS AND PROBABILITY 336

7.3 THE MEDIAN AND THE MEAN 343

REVIEW PROBLEMS 348

STRENGTHEN YOUR UNDERSTANDING 350

PROJECTS: TRIANGULAR PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION 351

8 FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES 353

8.1 UNDERSTANDING FUNCTIONS OF TWO VARIABLES 354

8.2 CONTOUR DIAGRAMS 358

8.3 PARTIAL DERIVATIVES 369

8.4 COMPUTING PARTIAL DERIVATIVES ALGEBRAICALLY 376

8.5 CRITICAL POINTS AND OPTIMIZATION 381

8.6 CONSTRAINED OPTIMIZATION 387

REVIEW PROBLEMS 394

STRENGTHEN YOUR UNDERSTANDING 399

PROJECTS: A HEATER IN A ROOM, OPTIMIZING RELATIVE PRICES FOR ADULTS AND CHILDREN,
MAXIMIZING PRODUCTION AND MINIMIZING COST: “DUALITY” 401

FOCUS ON THEORY 403

DERIVING THE FORMULA FOR A REGRESSION LINE 403

9 MATHEMATICAL MODELING USING DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 409

9.1 MATHEMATICAL MODELING: SETTING UP A DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION 410

9.2 SOLUTIONS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 414

9.3 SLOPE FIELDS 418

9.4 EXPONENTIAL GROWTH AND DECAY 424

9.5 APPLICATIONS AND MODELING 430

9.6 MODELING THE INTERACTION OF TWO POPULATIONS 439

9.7 MODELING THE SPREAD OF A DISEASE 445

REVIEW PROBLEMS 450

STRENGTHEN YOUR UNDERSTANDING 452

PROJECTS: HARVESTING AND LOGISTIC GROWTH, POPULATION GENETICS, THE SPREAD OF SARS 455

FOCUS ON THEORY 458

SEPARATION OF VARIABLES 458

10 GEOMETRIC SERIES 463

10.1 GEOMETRIC SERIES 464

10.2 APPLICATIONS TO BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS 470

10.3 APPLICATIONS TO THE NATURAL SCIENCES 474

REVIEW PROBLEMS 479

STRENGTHEN YOUR UNDERSTANDING 480

PROJECTS: DO YOU HAVE ANY COMMON ANCESTORS?, HARROD-HICKS MODEL OF AN EXPANDING NATIONAL ECONOMY, PROBABILITY OFWINNING IN SPORTS, MEDICAL CASE STUDY: DRUG DESENSITIZATION SCHEDULE 481

APPENDIX 483

A FITTING FORMULAS TO DATA 484

B COMPOUND INTEREST AND THE NUMBER e 492

C SPREADSHEET PROJECTS 497

1. MALTHUS: POPULATION OUTSTRIPS FOOD SUPPLY 497

2. CREDIT CARD DEBT 498

3. CHOOSING A BANK LOAN 499

4. COMPARING HOME MORTGAGES 500

5. PRESENT VALUE OF LOTTERYWINNINGS 501

6. COMPARING INVESTMENTS 501

7. INVESTING FOR THE FUTURE: TUITION PAYMENTS 502

8. NEW OR USED? 502

9. VERHULST: THE LOGISTIC MODEL 503

10. THE SPREAD OF INFORMATION: A COMPARISON OF TWO MODELS 504

11. THE FLU IN WORLD WAR I 504

ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS 507

PRETEST 535

INDEX 539

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Deborah Hughes-Hallett, Patti Frazer Lock, Andrew M. Gleason, Daniel E. Flath, Sheldon P. Gordon, David O. Lomen, David Lovelock, William G. McCallum, Brad G. Osgood, Andrew Pasquale, Jeff Tecosky-Feldman, Joseph Thrash, Karen R Rhea, Thomas W. Tucker